(20) The term to possess ‘brother’, aha inside the BT, has actually at the same time been enhanced, although this setting is even found in Turoyo. Hertevin provides both ?aha and you may ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
While doing so, external NENA, we have other terms: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) You to rather strange product that is attested in every NENA dialects except Sanandaj Religious (and this most likely just a chance pit regarding the research) was aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues this phrase derives throughout the means ql ‘to end up being crooked’. All of the languages use the form aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and you can Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Several other term chatted about because of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty two, 134) are baxta ‘woman’, that has supplanted new Syriac atta in every NENA, yet not inside Turoyo or Mandaic. Which term generally seems to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is interesting to notice that an irregular plural endures inside multiple dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you will Halabja inse.
(23) An urgent advancement discussed of the Noldeke (1868, 59) is actually rxata, corresponding to Syriac rhat. The change off h in order to x within this one-word is utilized in most of the NENA languages where the verb was attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Several other unexpected innovation ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, that takes the versions zda?an excellent, zdaya, and Literatur-Empfehlungen zdala on various languages. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) offer a possible derivation throughout the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Variations towards the infixed d can be found in all the latest NENA languages where the supply try attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Never assume all of your own determining options that come with NENA are located in a choice of Turoyo otherwise Mandaic
I think that the over helps it be clear your NENA languages share many unique faculties which are found none in the last attested different Aramaic neither on the most other life dialects. These characteristics range along the domains out-of phonology, morphology, additionally the lexicon.
Particularly, all dialects off NENA agree in standards 2, 9, 14, 15, 16, 21, and you can twenty-two. All the dialects in which i have information along with agree with standards 20, 23, and twenty-four.
All but Halabja agree inside the criteria 8 and you may eleven. Criterion 6 is found in all the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and Sanandaj Religious.
Despite the inner divisions, the fresh new NENA languages means an amazingly coherent group, divided certainly out-of both Turoyo and Mandaic. The career of these dialects beyond your NENA soft is out of matter.
The amount to which have is mutual across NENA is specially epic once we think about the immense differences between different dialects. This new determine away from other dialects into the NENA could have been one another strong and you can wider, and degree of common intelligibility ranging from languages can be extremely short. The countless shared innovations dispute firmly to possess a familiar source out of brand new NENA languages, either in one dialect or even in several directly related dialects. Meanwhile, we can detect a handful of important packages out-of isoglosses and therefore represent the latest limitations out-of dialect groups.
a) The fresh dialect off Halabja doesn’t share specific essential innovations which are found by way of all the other countries in the languages. It doesn’t mode a CCiC-ce preterite off intransitive verbs (8), it’s got zero b(it)- future marker (10), features zero third person only 1 copula having step one (11). It is probably the most important division anywhere between dialects of NENA. This means your leftover languages setting a group whereby designs bequeath if you are Halabja remained unaffected from the them.